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Archives: Referenzen


The aim of this briefing is the identification of Armenian agro-food products with the highest export potential. The assessment was conducted in a two-stage approach.

The Policy Briefing contains a number of proposals for improving the work of the Moldovan Investment Agency. In particular, reference is made to international best practices. Complete Study    

On behalf of the Moldovan Prime Minister’s Office, the German Economic Team prepared a policy study on reform options for the Moldovan Investment Agency.

Exporters in the Uzbek agricultural sector face several challenges. These include Uzbekistan’s status as a landlocked country without direct access to ports, the Soviet legacy of centrally controlled planning and an insufficiently diversified agricultural product portfolio. In order to increase the export opportunities of Uzbekistan’s agriculture, the policy briefing presents some measures. These include further […]

The agricultural sector is an important economic sector in Uzbekistan. The study highlights and evaluates development potentials of Uzbek agriculture, especially with regard to export opportunities.

Inflation-indexed bonds remove the inflation risk for the investor by transferring it to the issuer. This makes such bonds particularly suitable in countries with volatile inflation rates or unstable monetary policies. Georgia meets a number of criteria for introducing inflation-indexed bonds. The policy study discusses the pros and cons of introducing this type of bond. […]

Georgia’s capital markets are still at an early stage of development. In such an environment, the introduction of inflation-indexed bonds could make sense.

The idea to develop these ten “Policy Proposals” arose in the course of LCU’s support to the Ministry of Energy of Ukraine in the preparation of a national energy and climate plan for Ukraine. While some of Ukraine’s climate goals are very ambitious, there is often a lack of concrete policy options to realise these […]

In order for Ukraine to achieve its energy efficiency goals, a number of measures are required. The anthology analyses policy options and points out possible solutions.

In order to quantify the exact impact of sanctions on trade and the gross domestic product of the European Union, Berlin Economics conducted a simple plausibility check of previous studies. While the estimates of the impact on trade were largely plausible, there were significant discrepancies with regard to the impact on gross domestic product. Full […]

The mutual sanctions imposed between Russia and the EU in the wake of the Crimea crisis in 2014 have weighed on bilateral trade. Estimates of the impact of the decline in trade on gross domestic product vary.

After 1989/90, the former states of the Eastern bloc often had to struggle with similar problems in the administrative field, as they were all characterised by a strongly Soviet-centralist administrative model that left little room for local self-administration and autonomy. In the course of the 1990s and early 2000s, however, the Länder developed differently. While […]

This study, conducted by the former Prime Minister of Saxony and BE expert Dr Georg Milbradt, compares the administrative reforms implemented in the former GDR and Ukraine after the end of communism.

Der Analyseschwerpunkt dieses Technical Notes liegt auf der Nachfrageelastizität der aggregierten Importnachfrage im Hinblick auf Wechselkursschwankungen. Auch wenn Wechselkursschwankungen nicht vollständig auf die Importpreise wirken, kann der Einfluss dennoch erheblich sein und die Handelsaktivität einschränken. Im Falle Moldaus wird bei einer Abwertung des Leu um 10% eine Erhöhung der Preise von Importgütern um 5-6% erwartet. […]

Exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on import demand. As part of a technical note, the GET team examined the impact of fluctuations in the leu on Moldovan imports.

Labour emigration can have positive effects not only for a country of immigration but also for a country of emigration. Since many labour migrants realise higher incomes in their destination countries and can thus financially support their family remaining in the home country, the risk of poverty in the countries of origin decreases. In order […]

Uzbekistan has been struggling with an outflow of labour abroad, especially during and after the upheavals of the 1990s. This study examines demographic trends and labour economic developments that allow a forecast for the coming years.

The briefing summarises the results of a corresponding study: Overall, innovative labour market instruments, such as short-time allowances, were little or not used at all. This was mainly due to rigid labour regulations, which still have their origins in the Soviet era, as well as an underdeveloped social system. This left dismissal as the most […]

In the wake of the Covid 19 pandemic, numerous countries have enacted measures to strengthen labour markets (e.g. short-time allowances). This Policy Briefing examined the scope and impact of these and similar measures in Eastern European transition countries, with particular reference to the example of Ukraine.